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水库大坝填方碾压施工技术的应用

所属栏目:围挡资讯作者:ZHHYzh 发布时间:2021-12-08 11:19:20浏览:

导读:本文从水库下游地区、垫层、过渡层、挤压墙及填筑碾压进度等几个方面论述了填筑碾压技术的应用,希望能有效地促进填筑碾压技术的推广应用,充分发挥填筑碾压技术的作用,提高

  本文(wen)从(cong)水(shui)库下游地(di)区、垫层、过渡层、挤压墙及填(tian)筑碾压进度等几个方(fang)面论述了填(tian)筑碾压技(ji)术(shu)的应用(yong)(yong),希望能有效(xiao)地(di)促进填(tian)筑碾压技(ji)术(shu)的推广(guang)应用(yong)(yong),充分发挥填(tian)筑碾压技(ji)术(shu)的作用(yong)(yong),提(ti)高水(shui)库大坝质量(liang),确保水(shui)库大坝的稳定运行(xing),延长使(shi)用(yong)(yong)寿(shou)命。

  一(yi)、水库大坝施工(gong)技术及注意事项。

  1.1.说明。

  为(wei)确保(bao)水(shui)库大坝的顺利(li)建成,提(ti)高(gao)工(gong)程质(zhi)量和工(gong)程安(an)全,施(shi)工(gong)单位(wei)在(zai)施(shi)工(gong)过程中应注意以(yi)下(xia)几点:

  ②施工(gong)单(dan)位为(wei)保证材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)的质量和使(shi)用效果,应全面管理和掌握全部的装(zhuang)料(liao)(liao)(liao)情(qing)况,确保装(zhuang)料(liao)(liao)(liao)符(fu)合有关材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)标准,并(bing)严格控(kong)制好配比。为(wei)避(bi)免装(zhuang)运物料(liao)(liao)(liao)时出现局部颗粒化(hua)问(wen)题,施工(gong)单(dan)位应对装(zhuang)运物料(liao)(liao)(liao)进行(xing)反复筛选检查,以确保材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)质量,提(ti)高施工(gong)效果。

  ②在(zai)进(jin)行(xing)水库大(da)坝铺筑(zhu)施工环(huan)节时,为确保(bao)施工效果,应先铺好体(ti)积较大(da)的(de)(de)颗粒材料,在(zai)铺筑(zhu)材料时,施工单(dan)位应合(he)理(li)设(she)计相邻部位之间的(de)(de)距离,确保(bao)铺筑(zhu)距离的(de)(de)可(ke)行(xing)性,从而使施工顺利进(jin)行(xing)。

  ③在水库(ku)大(da)坝材料铺(pu)装(zhuang)(zhuang)环节(jie)中,施工单(dan)位(wei)应加强铺(pu)装(zhuang)(zhuang)厚度(du)的(de)控制和管理,确保(bao)铺(pu)装(zhuang)(zhuang)厚度(du)合理,在保(bao)证铺(pu)装(zhuang)(zhuang)平面度(du)的(de)基础上,对铺(pu)装(zhuang)(zhuang)平面度(du)进(jin)行检查。

  ④在水(shui)库(ku)大坝施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)过程中,施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)单(dan)位应合理划分和安排整体施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)作,保(bao)证(zheng)整体施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)期,提高混凝土(tu)应用的施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)效果(guo),增强水(shui)库(ku)大坝施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)质量和安全,确保(bao)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)建设顺利(li)进行。

  2.建(jian)设技术。

  其施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工技术主要(yao)有:①施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工单位(wei)应(ying)严格按(an)照有关(guan)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工标(biao)准和(he)要(yao)求,明确每(mei)一道(dao)工序(xu)所需材(cai)(cai)料(liao)的(de)(de)敷(fu)设(she)范围(wei),为保(bao)证敷(fu)设(she)范围(wei)的(de)(de)准确性,在(zai)进(jin)(jin)行测量时(shi),施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工人员可采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)白灰对交(jiao)接(jie)(jie)处(chu)及交(jiao)接(jie)(jie)处(chu)部位(wei)作(zuo)一定的(de)(de)标(biao)记,以(yi)提(ti)高(gao)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工质量。B施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工单位(wei)应(ying)在(zai)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)的(de)(de)使用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)场所完(wan)成相关(guan)设(she)备的(de)(de)安装和(he)移交(jiao),以(yi)方便施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工顺利进(jin)(jin)行。③施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工单位(wei)在(zai)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工过程中对现场收集的(de)(de)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)进(jin)(jin)行运(yun)输和(he)应(ying)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)时(shi),应(ying)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)专用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)运(yun)输车(che),一般采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)自动装卸(xie)车(che)。采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)自装卸(xie)运(yun)输方式,可以(yi)有效(xiao)降低人力(li)成本,提(ti)高(gao)运(yun)输效(xiao)率,减少材(cai)(cai)料(liao)的(de)(de)损失和(he)损耗(hao)。在(zai)物(wu)(wu)料(liao)运(yun)到后(hou),施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工人员要(yao)选(xuan)择(ze)合适的(de)(de)位(wei)置进(jin)(jin)行物(wu)(wu)料(liao)卸(xie)车(che),选(xuan)平路面,用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)推土(tu)机将其填平。

  二是(shi)填(tian)土碾(nian)压(ya)技术。

  2.1填充下(xia)游(you)堆石区(qu)。

  下游(you)堆石(shi)区(qu)开发验(yan)收完(wan)成后,施(shi)工(gong)(gong)单位(wei)应(ying)进(jin)行碾(nian)(nian)(nian)压(ya)试验(yan),对填(tian)筑环(huan)节进(jin)行施(shi)工(gong)(gong)。利用(yong)(yong)自卸(xie)车(che)将(jiang)建(jian)筑用(yong)(yong)材料从石(shi)料场运送到水库(ku)大(da)坝的(de)(de)(de)(de)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)现场,在(zai)压(ya)平(ping)(ping)、碾(nian)(nian)(nian)压(ya)等环(huan)节前(qian),由专业设备推(tui)土机将(jiang)其(qi)(qi)推(tui)平(ping)(ping)、填(tian)平(ping)(ping)。应(ying)注意的(de)(de)(de)(de)是,在(zai)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)过程中(zhong),施(shi)工(gong)(gong)人(ren)员可采用(yong)(yong)自卸(xie)车(che)卸(xie)料的(de)(de)(de)(de)方(fang)法进(jin)行工(gong)(gong)作,对材料的(de)(de)(de)(de)碾(nian)(nian)(nian)压(ya)厚(hou)度应(ying)严格(ge)控制(zhi),为保证施(shi)工(gong)(gong)效果(guo),施(shi)工(gong)(gong)单位(wei)应(ying)将(jiang)第一(yi)层的(de)(de)(de)(de)碾(nian)(nian)(nian)压(ya)厚(hou)度控制(zhi)在(zai)80cm左(zuo)右(you),在(zai)第一(yi)层碾(nian)(nian)(nian)压(ya)结束后,应(ying)保证其(qi)(qi)碾(nian)(nian)(nian)压(ya)部(bu)位(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)湿润性,因(yin)此施(shi)工(gong)(gong)单位(wei)应(ying)对其(qi)(qi)进(jin)行相应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)洒(sa)水,洒(sa)水量应(ying)控制(zhi)在(zai)堆石(shi)雅师量的(de)(de)(de)(de)20%左(zuo)右(you),以提高下游(you)堆石(shi)区(qu)填(tian)方(fang)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)技术的(de)(de)(de)(de)质量。

  2.衬垫、过渡(du)层料的填(tian)充。

  垫(dian)料(liao)(liao)(liao)层(ceng)、过(guo)(guo)渡(du)层(ceng)和主堆(dui)料(liao)(liao)(liao)石的(de)(de)填(tian)筑,应(ying)保(bao)(bao)证填(tian)筑的(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)效果,施工(gong)单(dan)位(wei)应(ying)将三种填(tian)筑工(gong)艺在同一(yi)时间控制(zhi)在同一(yi)高(gao)度(du),过(guo)(guo)渡(du)层(ceng)宽度(du)为(wei)4m,铺层(ceng)厚度(du)为(wei)45m,过(guo)(guo)渡(du)层(ceng)宽度(du)为(wei)2m。第一(yi)次填(tian)土(tu)完(wan)成后(hou),需要对过(guo)(guo)渡(du)层(ceng)、垫(dian)层(ceng)料(liao)(liao)(liao)进行再(zai)次填(tian)筑,第二次填(tian)土(tu)完(wan)成后(hou),需要对过(guo)(guo)渡(du)层(ceng)、垫(dian)层(ceng)料(liao)(liao)(liao)进行二次填(tian)筑,在填(tian)土(tu)过(guo)(guo)程中(zhong),施工(gong)人员要注意(yi)到过(guo)(guo)渡(du)层(ceng)、垫(dian)层(ceng)料(liao)(liao)(liao)达到水平(ping)状态(tai)后(hou),再(zai)循环碾(nian)压(ya)。采用退料(liao)(liao)(liao)工(gong)艺时,施工(gong)单(dan)位(wei)应(ying)加强施工(gong)人员与设备之间的(de)(de)协调与配合,确保(bao)(bao)振动碾(nian)压(ya)工(gong)艺的(de)(de)真实性和可靠性。

  2.3施工挤压边墙。

  为(wei)确保(bao)(bao)填筑-碾(nian)(nian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺顺利实施(shi),施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)单(dan)位在(zai)开始填筑前应(ying)(ying)(ying)先将垫(dian)层料(liao)填筑并碾(nian)(nian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)完毕(bi),压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)实后要(yao)控(kong)制(zhi)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)平整度。施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)单(dan)位在(zai)完成(cheng)定位划线(xian)后,应(ying)(ying)(ying)通过(guo)边墙(qiang)挤压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)机制(zhi)制(zhi)作低弹性、低强(qiang)度的(de)模具(ju),在(zai)满足相关强(qiang)度标准(zhun)后,施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人员还应(ying)(ying)(ying)在(zai)下游(you)根据施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)设计要(yao)求和(he)要(yao)点进(jin)行(xing)(xing)铺垫(dian),铺垫(dian)完成(cheng)后,施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)单(dan)位应(ying)(ying)(ying)通过(guo)推土机进(jin)行(xing)(xing)填平压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)实,为(wei)保(bao)(bao)证碾(nian)(nian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)效果,还应(ying)(ying)(ying)采用专用仪(yi)器自振方式进(jin)行(xing)(xing)碾(nian)(nian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya),以保(bao)(bao)证碾(nian)(nian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)顺利性和(he)科学(xue)性。在(zai)碾(nian)(nian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程完成(cheng)并达到相关碾(nian)(nian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)标准(zhun)后,应(ying)(ying)(ying)于上游(you)坝面进(jin)行(xing)(xing)填筑碾(nian)(nian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)。

  在(zai)(zai)摊(tan)铺(pu)法施(shi)工(gong)过(guo)程中,施(shi)工(gong)单(dan)位对(dui)垫层联接进(jin)行施(shi)工(gong)时,需要(yao)加强对(dui)高度(du)差和平整度(du)的(de)控制(zhi)和管理,施(shi)工(gong)人员(yuan)应采用(yong)拉(la)线(xian)(xian)绳人工(gong)开展找平工(gong)作,将高差控制(zhi)在(zai)(zai)4cm以内(nei),提高技术应用(yong)效(xiao)果(guo)。此外,施(shi)工(gong)人员(yuan)还应在(zai)(zai)保(bao)证符(fu)合建筑和技术应用(yong)两个标(biao)准后(hou),才能进(jin)行挤压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)边墙放线(xian)(xian)施(shi)工(gong)。当平直连接完成后(hou),工(gong)单(dan)位应按(an)照基(ji)面高程要(yao)求,排出(chu)上(shang)游设计边线(xian)(xian)的(de)位置(zhi),在(zai)(zai)正确(que)的(de)位置(zhi),按(an)挤压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)边墙宽度(du)排出(chu)内(nei)侧(ce)位置(zhi)线(xian)(xian),再按(an)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)水机(ji)宽度(du)和尺寸排出(chu)垫层材料一(yi)侧(ce)的(de)轮迹线(xian)(xian),通过(guo)撒白(bai)灰来排标(biao),实现对(dui)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)水机(ji)运行位置(zhi)的(de)控制(zhi),提高压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)水机(ji)碾压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)填筑技术的(de)应用(yong)效(xiao)果(guo),确(que)保(bao)水库大坝(ba)的(de)顺(shun)利建设施(shi)工(gong)。

  4.水库大(da)坝施工过程(cheng)中碾压填筑工程(cheng)的控(kong)制与保证。

  为确保(bao)工(gong)(gong)程顺利进(jin)行(xing),相(xiang)关施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)单位应加强对填方(fang)碾(nian)压(ya)法施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)进(jin)度(du)和强度(du)的严格控制,在保(bao)证(zheng)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)的基础(chu)上,才能顺利进(jin)行(xing)。一是施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)单位应对开挖(wa)、运输、碾(nian)压(ya)等环(huan)节工(gong)(gong)作进(jin)行(xing)集中(zhong)安排,提(ti)(ti)高(gao)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)机械的有序性(xing);在填筑碾(nian)压(ya)技(ji)(ji)术施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)过程中(zhong),施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)单位为了提(ti)(ti)高(gao)施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)效率和施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang),可建立相(xiang)应的管理制度(du)和层次结构等,从而有效地提(ti)(ti)高(gao)整体施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)组织的紧密性(xing),实(shi)现科学有效的施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)管理,保(bao)证(zheng)各(ge)项(xiang)填筑碾(nian)压(ya)技(ji)(ji)术的施(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)细节落实(shi)。

  同时,建立相应的(de)(de)(de)奖惩机制(zhi),提(ti)高施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)人员(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)作积极性(xing)和(he)主动性(xing),确保水库(ku)(ku)(ku)大(da)(da)坝(ba)(ba)建设(she)的(de)(de)(de)顺利进行。二(er)是在水库(ku)(ku)(ku)大(da)(da)坝(ba)(ba)投入运行过程(cheng)中,施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)单(dan)位应根据(ju)水库(ku)(ku)(ku)大(da)(da)坝(ba)(ba)实(shi)际施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)情况,科学(xue)控制(zhi)和(he)划分碾压填(tian)筑工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)进度,确保整个(ge)运输环境的(de)(de)(de)安全和(he)稳(wen)定(ding)。此外,在整个(ge)水库(ku)(ku)(ku)大(da)(da)坝(ba)(ba)的(de)(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)结(jie)束后,施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)单(dan)位还应指(zhi)派专(zhuan)业(ye)人员(yuan)对施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)大(da)(da)坝(ba)(ba)进行定(ding)期(qi)的(de)(de)(de)维护和(he)检查(cha),以确保施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)区域内的(de)(de)(de)公路养护工(gong)(gong)作的(de)(de)(de)科学(xue)性(xing)。

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