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施工工地工程建筑测量放线流程详解

所属栏目:常见问题作(zuo)者(zhe):J9九游会AG 发布时间:2021-11-27 13:19:55浏览:

导读:工程建筑土建工程环节施工放线,大概分成房屋建筑精准定位、基坑开挖、基础工程施工和行为主体测量放线等环节,此外在探讨一下房屋建筑沉降观测。 房屋建筑精准定位 建筑物工

  工程建筑(zhu)土建工程环节(jie)施工放线,大概分成(cheng)房屋建筑(zhu)精准(zhun)定位(wei)、基坑开挖(wa)、基础工程施工和行为主(zhu)体测(ce)量放线等(deng)环节(jie),此外在探(tan)讨一下房屋建筑(zhu)沉降(jiang)观测(ce)。

  房屋建筑精(jing)准定位

  建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)物工(gong)(gong)程开工(gong)(gong)后的(de)第一次施工(gong)(gong)放线,房屋建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)精准定位(wei)报名参加的(de)工(gong)(gong)作人员是:城市规(gui)划建(jian)(jian)设单(dan)位(wei)(属下的(de)测量队)及施工(gong)(gong)企业的(de)精确测量工(gong)(gong)作人员(技术专业的(de)),依据工(gong)(gong)程建(jian)(jian)筑(zhu)整体规(gui)划定位(wei)图开展精准定位(wei),最(zui)终在施工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)地产生(最(zui)少)4个精准定位(wei)桩。施工(gong)(gong)放线专用工(gong)(gong)具为“GPS”或“RTK”。点这(zhei)一键下载施工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)材料

  2基坑开挖环节

  基坑开(kai)挖环节施(shi)(shi)工放线(xian)(xian),一般(ban)分龙们板(ban)精(jing)准(zhun)定(ding)位(wei)尺(chi)量施(shi)(shi)工放线(xian)(xian)和仪器设(she)备施(shi)(shi)工放线(xian)(xian),前面一种依(yi)据(ju)工程图纸已(yi)经知道的(de)基准(zhun)点(dian)或当(dang)场明确的(de)基准(zhun)点(dian),在要(yao)施(shi)(shi)工放线(xian)(xian)的(de)房屋建筑基本外四周一定(ding)间距基础打桩、搭建龙们板(ban),在龙们板(ban)上(shang)放工程施(shi)(shi)工线(xian)(xian)拉一个(ge)大致的(de)斜角线(xian)(xian),尽(jin)可能把线(xian)(xian)绷紧,随后用勾(gou)股(gu)定(ding)理选(xuan)用钢卷尺(chi)合(he)尺(chi),规格(ge)要(yao)大一点(dian),一般(ban)6、8、十米,

  那(nei)样较为(wei)精确(que),最(zui)先在两控线(xian)(xian)上(shang)(shang)量取规格用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)红铅笔放点(dian),随(sui)后两个人拉(la)尺(chi),一(yi)人晃(huang)动能够 随(sui)意(yi)一(yi)根线(xian)(xian)与钢(gang)卷(juan)(juan)尺(chi)的(de)(de)规格稳合,随(sui)后龙们板上(shang)(shang)固(gu)定不动工(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)线(xian)(xian),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)钢(gang)卷(juan)(juan)尺(chi)从(cong)头开始再(zai)审校一(yi)次(ci),确(que)定准确(que)无误后四(si)周挂线(xian)(xian)、钢(gang)卷(juan)(juan)尺(chi)校对,依据工(gong)程(cheng)图(tu)纸(zhi)上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)中心线(xian)(xian)规格用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)钢(gang)卷(juan)(juan)尺(chi)量拿取点(dian),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)铅垂(chui)线(xian)(xian)垂(chui)于路面(mian),那(nei)样就(jiu)可(ke)以用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)生石(shi)灰(hui)粉(fen)各(ge)自放基坑开挖(wa)线(xian)(xian)了,用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)水平仪在龙们板上(shang)(shang)测放操纵标高(gao)。后面(mian)一(yi)种假如会用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)水平仪或RTK那(nei)么就(jiu)简(jian)易多了,要(yao)是依据工(gong)程(cheng)图(tu)纸(zhi)已经(jing)知道的(de)(de)基准点(dian)或当(dang)场明确(que)的(de)(de)基准点(dian),工(gong)程(cheng)图(tu)纸(zhi)上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)间(jian)距、视角(jiao)关(guan)联就(jiu)可(ke)精确(que)测量明确(que)具体(ti)地址。

  基(ji)本测量放线(xian)

  房屋(wu)(wu)建筑(zhu)精(jing)准(zhun)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)桩设(she)置后,由施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)企业的技术专(zhuan)业精(jing)确测(ce)量工(gong)(gong)作人员、施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)地责任人及(ji)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)监(jian)理相互对(dui)地基工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)开(kai)展施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)放(fang)(fang)线(xian)(xian)及(ji)精(jing)确测(ce)量核查(cha)(工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)监(jian)理工(gong)(gong)作人员主要(yao)是旁站监(jian)管、认证),最终释放(fang)(fang)全部房屋(wu)(wu)建筑(zhu)中心(xin)线(xian)(xian)的精(jing)准(zhun)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)桩(依(yi)据房屋(wu)(wu)建筑(zhu)尺(chi)寸也可中心(xin)线(xian)(xian)间(jian)距(ju)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)放(fang)(fang)线(xian)(xian)),全部中心(xin)线(xian)(xian)精(jing)准(zhun)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)桩是依(yi)据整体规划单位(wei)(wei)的精(jing)准(zhun)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)桩(最少4个(ge))及(ji)房屋(wu)(wu)建筑(zhu)最底层施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)平(ping)面图开(kai)展施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)放(fang)(fang)线(xian)(xian)的。施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)放(fang)(fang)线(xian)(xian)专(zhuan)用工(gong)(gong)具为“水平(ping)仪”。

  基础工(gong)程施工(gong)选用外控法,即打(da)好操纵桩,用水平(ping)仪投(tou)测中心线(xian)。

  行为(wei)主(zhu)体测量放线

  基本建筑(zhu)(zhu)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)正(zheng)负零后,随后便是行(xing)为(wei)主(zhu)体一(yi)层(ceng)、二层(ceng)...直(zhi)(zhi)到行(xing)为(wei)主(zhu)体到顶的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)及(ji)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)放线(xian)(xian)(xian)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作中(zhong),施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)放线(xian)(xian)(xian)专用(yong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)具(ju):水平(ping)仪、线(xian)(xian)(xian)坠子、绳(sheng)线(xian)(xian)(xian)、墨斗线(xian)(xian)(xian)、卷尺(chi)等。依据中(zhong)心(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)精准(zhun)定位桩(zhuang)及(ji)外引的中(zhong)心(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)基准(zhun)点开展测量放线(xian)(xian)(xian)。用(yong)水平(ping)仪将中(zhong)心(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)打进房屋建筑(zhu)(zhu)上,在房屋建筑(zhu)(zhu)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方面上弹出(chu)来中(zhong)心(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian),再依据中(zhong)心(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)释放柱头、墙面等边框线(xian)(xian)(xian)等,各层(ceng)这般,直(zhi)(zhi)到行(xing)为(wei)主(zhu)体到顶。

  高层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)住宅因层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)高高的及(ji)有外脚手(shou)架(jia),故线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)锤(chui)法(fa)及(ji)外控(kong)法(fa)均不适合(he),可(ke)选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)内部(bu)(bu)(bu)控(kong)制(zhi)法(fa)。即用(yong)(yong)水(shui)平仪(yi)将(jiang)操(cao)纵(zong)中心(xin)(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)投(tou)(tou)测到首层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)平面图(tu)上(shang),首层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)平面图(tu)在可(ke)通视(shi)的部(bu)(bu)(bu)位上(shang)预(yu)(yu)埋件厚(hou)钢板(ban),用(yong)(yong)水(shui)平仪(yi)在厚(hou)钢板(ban)上(shang)找(zhao)到相(xiang)交(jiao)点(dian)(dian)(dian),刻(ke)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),做为纵(zong)向(xiang)投(tou)(tou)测中心(xin)(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的基准点(dian)(dian)(dian),随(sui)后(hou)(hou)用(yong)(yong)铅垂线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)仪(yi)为此(ci)点(dian)(dian)(dian)往上(shang)可(ke)投(tou)(tou)测中心(xin)(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)n层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng).高层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)住宅施(shi)工(gong)放(fang)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)广(guang)泛用(yong)(yong)的便(bian)是(shi)内部(bu)(bu)(bu)控(kong)制(zhi)法(fa)。实际讲(jiang)在工(gong)程建(jian)筑(zhu)中心(xin)(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)周边平行(xing)面与中心(xin)(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)找(zhao)一(yi)合(he)适的距离我(wo)一(yi)班找(zhao)1米(mi)(mi)长这(zhei)一(yi)部(bu)(bu)(bu)位预(yu)(yu)埋件厚(hou)钢板(ban),在厚(hou)钢板(ban)上(shang)找(zhao)到相(xiang)交(jiao)点(dian)(dian)(dian),刻(ke)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),做为纵(zong)向(xiang)投(tou)(tou)测中心(xin)(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的基准点(dian)(dian)(dian),随(sui)后(hou)(hou)用(yong)(yong)铅垂线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)仪(yi)或激光器(qi)水(shui)平仪(yi)为此(ci)点(dian)(dian)(dian)往上(shang)可(ke)投(tou)(tou)测中心(xin)(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)n层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng).例如(ru)(ru)你如(ru)(ru)今(jin)从(cong)一(yi)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)向(xiang)二层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)引,你指向(xiang)一(yi)层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)的加用(yong)(yong)激光器(qi)水(shui)平仪(yi)往上(shang)打,在二层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)用(yong)(yong)夹层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)玻(bo)璃抓住从(cong)下边传出的点(dian)(dian)(dian)便(bian)是(shi)了.随(sui)后(hou)(hou)从(cong)二层(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)(ceng)这(zhei)一(yi)点(dian)(dian)(dian)回去量一(yi)米(mi)(mi)那便(bian)是(shi)房屋(wu)建(jian)筑(zhu)中心(xin)(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的部(bu)(bu)(bu)位了。

  标高的投(tou)测

  基础工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)环节,高(gao)程(cheng)(cheng)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)立即用(yong)水(shui)平(ping)仪由路面上(shang)标高(gao)基准(zhun)点(dian)开(kai)展(zhan)投测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)。上(shang)端构(gou)(gou)造(zao)(zao)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)时,在首(shou)层工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)完后,将标高(gao)基准(zhun)点(dian)接至表面无遮(zhe)无挡(dang)的(de)(de)柱(zhu)的(de)(de)身上(shang),随构(gou)(gou)造(zao)(zao)升高(gao),测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)员用(yong)五十米卷(juan)尺将标高(gao)往上(shang)传送。楼房上(shang)用(yong)水(shui)平(ping)仪将设(she)计(ji)标高(gao)转到各有关预制(zhi)构(gou)(gou)件上(shang)。上(shang)端构(gou)(gou)造(zao)(zao)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)时每一(yi)(yi)(yi)个单个房屋建筑标高(gao)投测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)基准(zhun)点(dian)设(she)定数量(liang)不可低于三个,构(gou)(gou)造(zao)(zao)每工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)五层,标高(gao)点(dian)由测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)师开(kai)展(zhan)一(yi)(yi)(yi)次校准(zhun)。构(gou)(gou)造(zao)(zao)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)现场(chang),解决房屋建筑行为主体(ti)歪(wai)斜(xie)率(lv)开(kai)展(zhan)观察测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)算(suan)。点(dian)这一(yi)(yi)(yi)键下载施(shi)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺材料

  细(xi)节方(fang)面(mian)的精确(que)测量(liang)

  柱梁(liang)边(bian)(bian)框线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)、控(kong)(kong)(kong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)精确测(ce)(ce)量:每楼房工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)前,测(ce)(ce)量工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)师将控(kong)(kong)(kong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)、关键中心(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)施(shi)测(ce)(ce)进(jin)行后(hou),土建施(shi)工(gong)(gong)员下(xia)手根(gen)(gen)据控(kong)(kong)(kong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)、中心(xin)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)对(dui)(dui)柱梁(liang)边(bian)(bian)框线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)、柱墙(qiang)(qiang)控(kong)(kong)(kong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)开(kai)展投(tou)测(ce)(ce)。全(quan)部柱墙(qiang)(qiang)释放(fang)边(bian)(bian)框线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和距边(bian)(bian)框线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)200宽的(de)(de)控(kong)(kong)(kong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),柱墙(qiang)(qiang)边(bian)(bian)框线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)做为(wei)电焊焊接导墙(qiang)(qiang)筋的(de)(de)根(gen)(gen)据,控(kong)(kong)(kong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)做为(wei)校对(dui)(dui)模版、工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)验收(shou)模版的(de)(de)根(gen)(gen)据。

  沉(chen)降观测

  降点的设(she)定:设(she)定沉(chen)降观测(ce)(ce)点的数量和(he)具体地址依(yi)据(ju)标(biao)准和(he)设(she)计方案规定明确,在图纸会审(shen)记(ji)录环节,施工(gong)企业、工(gong)程监理(li)与规划院(yuan)开(kai)展(zhan)商议基(ji)本明确地基(ji)沉(chen)降点设(she)定计划方案;待(dai)基(ji)础(chu)工(gong)程施工(gong)进(jin)行(xing)后(hou),依(yi)据(ju)具体地质学状况进(jin)一(yi)步优化(hua)沉(chen)降观测(ce)(ce)点的设(she)定部位。为不(bu)错地开(kai)展(zhan)沉(chen)降观测(ce)(ce),施工(gong)工(gong)地内铺设(she)的水平基(ji)准点应(ying)有(you)益(yi)于立即投测(ce)(ce),且总数不(bu)少于2个,每一(yi)次(ci)开(kai)展(zhan)沉(chen)降观测(ce)(ce)时,事(shi)前审(shen)查标(biao)准基(ji)准点是(shi)不(bu)是(shi)产生出(chu)现异常转变,一(yi)切(qie)正常后(hou)才可(ke)以(yi)开(kai)展(zhan)施测(ce)(ce)。

  地基(ji)沉降点的(de)(de)(de)铺设方(fang)(fang)法为:先将(jiang)带钢筋(jin)锚固(gu)脚的(de)(de)(de)厚(hou)钢板埋(mai)进设计方(fang)(fang)案(an)观测(ce)站柱(zhu)的(de)(de)(de)身上,并按基(ji)本设置标(biao)高铺设,待模版(ban)拆(chai)卸(xie)后,精准找(zhao)到标(biao)高、焊(han)住带观测(ce)站的(de)(de)(de)角铁。

  地基(ji)沉降点的精确(que)(que)测(ce)量,测(ce)量仪器:本工(gong)程项目地基(ji)沉降精确(que)(que)测(ce)量由(you)测(ce)量工(gong)程师承担;沉降观测(ce)选用S1水(shui)平仪和mm划分(fen)水(shui)准(zhun)尺开(kai)展精确(que)(que)测(ce)量。

  精确测量次(ci)数:一切正常工(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)环节应确保每载入(ru)一次(ci)施测一次(ci)(每一固层工(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)结束观察(cha)一次(ci));主(zhu)体工(gong)程(cheng)完工(gong)后(hou)每个月观察(cha)一次(ci);大暴雨后(hou)观察(cha)一次(ci);工(gong)程(cheng)竣(jun)工(gong)交(jiao)货小(xiao)区业主(zhu)应用(yong)前(qian)还需与小(xiao)区业主(zhu)相互(hu)观察(cha)一次(ci)后(hou)向小(xiao)区业主(zhu)开(kai)展地基(ji)沉降(jiang)点的转交(jiao)。

  观察(cha)方式:每一次观察(cha)按固定(ding)不动后聚(ju)焦点、观察(cha)线路开展,前(qian)后左右焦距尽(jin)可能相同(tong),焦距大概(gai)15m,以降低仪器设(she)备偏差(cha)危害。观察(cha)時(shi)间宜挑选(xuan)天气晴好的早上或黄昏。

  观(guan)(guan)察纪(ji)录梳(shu)理:每一次观(guan)(guan)察完毕(bi)后(hou),对观(guan)(guan)察成(cheng)效分步骤开展核查,依据(ju)此(ci)次测(ce)定标高与(yu)初次测(ce)定标高之差测(ce)算出地基沉降(jiang)量并将每一次观(guan)(guan)察时间、工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)建筑载荷状况标明(ming)清晰,绘制時间与(yu)地基沉降(jiang)量、载荷的(de)关联趋(qu)势图。测(ce)量工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)师务必(bi)将每一次观(guan)(guan)察結果(guo)立(li)即向新项目(mu)项目(mu)负责人、工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)师开展报(bao)告;若出現显(xian)著地基沉降(jiang)量的(de)转变或不匀称地基沉降(jiang)时,新项目(mu)项目(mu)负责人还应立(li)即与(yu)设(she)计方(fang)案、勘(kan)测(ce)单(dan)位联络,明(ming)确进一步观(guan)(guan)察的(de)计划方(fang)案。

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